SCIENCE

Under : SCIENCE    Posted On :  07.08.2017 05:42 pm    Author :  Gene S. Helfman, Bruce B. Collette, Douglas E. Facey, Brian W. Bowen

Capture refers to initial ingestion of the prey; in fishes this involves taking the prey into the mouth.....

Under : SCIENCE    Posted On :  07.08.2017 05:41 pm    Author :  Gene S. Helfman, Bruce B. Collette, Douglas E. Facey, Brian W. Bowen

When actually attacked, a prey fish can make a quick evasive move, employ an active defense, rely on passive structural defenses to deflect the predat....

Under : SCIENCE    Posted On :  07.08.2017 05:39 pm    Author :  Gene S. Helfman, Bruce B. Collette, Douglas E. Facey, Brian W. Bowen

Once a predator finds and recognizes prey, pursuit is likely. ....

Under : SCIENCE    Posted On :  07.08.2017 05:39 pm    Author :  Gene S. Helfman, Bruce B. Collette, Douglas E. Facey, Brian W. Bowen

The antipredation benefits of group formation apply to all phases of the predation cycle, including search. ....

Under : SCIENCE    Posted On :  07.08.2017 05:38 pm    Author :  Gene S. Helfman, Bruce B. Collette, Douglas E. Facey, Brian W. Bowen

Predator–prey interactions often occur over a period of tens of milliseconds. With such rapid reaction times, predators generally require an element....

Under : SCIENCE    Posted On :  07.08.2017 05:38 pm    Author :  Gene S. Helfman, Bruce B. Collette, Douglas E. Facey, Brian W. Bowen

Protective resemblance and disruptive coloration are camoufl age tactics available to all organisms, regardless of habitat.....

Under : SCIENCE    Posted On :  07.08.2017 05:37 pm    Author :  Gene S. Helfman, Bruce B. Collette, Douglas E. Facey, Brian W. Bowen

The key to lowering the probability of death during the search phase of predation is to either avoid detection by the predator or to detect the predat....

Under : SCIENCE    Posted On :  07.08.2017 05:35 pm    Author :  Gene S. Helfman, Bruce B. Collette, Douglas E. Facey, Brian W. Bowen

Natural selection favors animals that forage efficiently, selecting foods and feeding activities that maximize the ratio of benefits to costs.....

Under : SCIENCE    Posted On :  07.08.2017 05:35 pm    Author :  Gene S. Helfman, Bruce B. Collette, Douglas E. Facey, Brian W. Bowen

Many fishes scavenge on dead and dying animals. A few species obtain most of their nutrition through scavenging.....

Under : SCIENCE    Posted On :  07.08.2017 05:34 pm    Author :  Gene S. Helfman, Bruce B. Collette, Douglas E. Facey, Brian W. Bowen

Handling includes any postcapture manipulation required to subdue prey and make it ingestible and digestible.....

Under : SCIENCE    Posted On :  07.08.2017 05:33 pm    Author :  Gene S. Helfman, Bruce B. Collette, Douglas E. Facey, Brian W. Bowen

An actual attack takes place as the predator launches itself at the prey and engulfs the prey in its mouth. ....

Under : SCIENCE    Posted On :  07.08.2017 05:33 pm    Author :  Gene S. Helfman, Bruce B. Collette, Douglas E. Facey, Brian W. Bowen

Pursuit places a predator close enough to attack prey. Two dramatically different categories of predators have developed.....

Under : SCIENCE    Posted On :  07.08.2017 05:32 pm    Author :  Gene S. Helfman, Bruce B. Collette, Douglas E. Facey, Brian W. Bowen

Predators can search for prey actively or passively. Water column searchers, such as herrings, anchovies, minnows, tunas, and billfishes rely heavily ....

Under : SCIENCE    Posted On :  07.08.2017 05:30 pm    Author :  Gene S. Helfman, Bruce B. Collette, Douglas E. Facey, Brian W. Bowen

Adaptation to the cave environment often involves two contrasting trends in the development of structures. ....

Under : SCIENCE    Posted On :  07.08.2017 05:30 pm    Author :  Gene S. Helfman, Bruce B. Collette, Douglas E. Facey, Brian W. Bowen

Typical cave-adapted fishes are characterized by a lack of pigmentation, reduced squamation, a reduction or loss of light receptors (involving eyes an....

Under : SCIENCE    Posted On :  07.08.2017 05:29 pm    Author :  Gene S. Helfman, Bruce B. Collette, Douglas E. Facey, Brian W. Bowen

Among the more extreme aquatic environments imaginable are underground water systems where no light penetrates and where food availability depends on ....

Under : SCIENCE    Posted On :  07.08.2017 05:29 pm    Author :  Gene S. Helfman, Bruce B. Collette, Douglas E. Facey, Brian W. Bowen

High-energy zones in both marine and fresh waters – waveswept rocky shores in the ocean and rapids in rivers and streams – appear unsuitable for f....

Under : SCIENCE    Posted On :  07.08.2017 05:28 pm    Author :  Gene S. Helfman, Bruce B. Collette, Douglas E. Facey, Brian W. Bowen

Additional examples of desert adaptations could be presented from almost any continent (except Antarctica), but some of the best studied desert fishes....