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Chapter: 11th 12th std standard Class Organic Inorganic Physical Chemistry Higher secondary school College Notes

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Silver nitrate or Lunar caustic: Preparation, Properties and Uses

Preparation : Silver nitrate is prepared by dissolving silver in dilute nitric acid.


Silver nitrate or Lunar caustic (AgNO3)


Preparation

Silver nitrate is prepared by dissolving silver in dilute nitric acid.

 

3Ag + 4HNO3  3AgNO3 + 2H2O + NO

Properties

Physical

1.    It is soluble in water.

2.    Its aqueous solution may decompose on exposure to light.

Chemical Properties

1.    Action of Heat

On heating AgNO3 decomposes in two stages

2A gN O 3 --- 723 K -- > 2A gN O 2 + O 2    S ilv er n itrite

A gN O 2 --- 980 K -- >  Ag +  NO2

2. With NaCl

AgNO3 gives white precipitate of AgCl with soluble ionic chlorides.

AgNO3 + NaCl AgCl + NaNO3

Silver nitrate is strongly caustic and oxidizing in nature.

4. With KBr & KI

AgNO3 gives pale yellow precipitate of AgBr with bromides and yellow AgI with iodides.

AgNO3 + KBr AgBr + KNO3

Yellow ppt

 

AgNO3 + KI AgI + KNO3

Yellow ppt

5. Action with organic compounds

Ammoniacal silver nitrate (Tollen's reagent) is reduced to silver mirror by

compounds like formic acid, formaldehyde or glucose

 

2AgNO3 + 2NH4OH Ag2O + 2NH4NO3 + H2O

Ag2O + HCOOH 2Ag + H2O + CO2

Uses

1.     It is used in the preparation of silver halides which are extensively used in

2.     photography.

3.     It is used in silvering mirrors.

4.     It is used in preparation of marking inks and hair dyes. It is used for silver plating.

5.           It is used as laboratory reagent.


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