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# Measurements and Instrumentation - 1EE6404

## INTRODUCTION

-:- Measurements and Instrumentation
-:- Functional Elements of an Instrument
-:- Static& Dynamic Performance Characteristics of an Instrument
-:- Errors in Measurement
-:- Statistical Evaluation of Measurement Data
-:- Standard & Calibration
-:- Important Short Questions and Answers: Measurements and Instrumentation - Introduction

## ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INSTRUMENTS

-:- Principle and Types of Analog and Digital Voltmeters
-:- Ammeters & Multimeters
-:- Permanent Magnet Moving Coil Instrument (PMMC): Construction, Control, Torque Equation, Errors, Advantages and Disadvantages
-:- Moving Iron Instruments: Classification, Construction, Torque Equation, Errors, Advantages and Disadvantages
-:- Electrodynamometer (Eelectrodynamic) Type Instruments: Operating Principle, Control, Torque Equation, Errors, Advantages and Disadvantages
-:- Rectifier Type Instruments
-:- Types of Digital Voltmeter(DVM)
-:- Single and Three Phase Wattmeters and Energy Meters: Construction and principle of operation
-:- Electrodynamometer Wattmeters: Construction, Theory, Errors
-:- Ferrodynamic Wattmeters
-:- Three Phase Wattmeters
-:- Instrument Transformers
-:- Magnetic Measurements
-:- Determination of B-H curve and Hysteresis Loop
-:- Important Short Questions and Answers: Electrical and Electronics Instruments

## COMPARISON METHODS OF MEASUREMENTS

-:- D.C and A.C Potentiometers
-:- D.C and A.C Bridges
-:- Wheatstone bridge(Null-type, D.C. bridge)
-:- Deflection-type D.C. bridge
-:- Null-type impedance A.C bridge
-:- Maxwell bridge: Definition, Circuit Diagram, Explanation, Advantages and Disadvantages
-:- Schering Bridge: Definition, Circuit Diagram, Explanation, Advantages
-:- Hay Bridge: Definition, Circuit Diagram, Explanation, Advantages and Disadvantages
-:- Wien bridge: Definition, Circuit Diagram, Explanation, Advantages
-:- Transformer Ratio Bridges & Self-Balancing Bridges
-:- Interference and Screening
-:- Electrostatic and Electromagnetic Interference
-:- Grounding (or Earthing)
-:- Multiple Earth and Earth Loops
-:- Important Short Questions and Answers: Comparison Methods of Measurements

## STORAGE AND DISPLAY DEVICES

-:- Recorders
-:- Magnetic Disk and Tape
-:- Digital Plotters and Printers
-:- CRT(Cathode Ray Tube) Display and its Parts
-:- Digital Storage Oscilloscope: Block Diagram, Explanation, Advantages
-:- Data Logger: Definition, Components, Examples, Advantages, Applications
-:- LED-Backlit LCD Television
-:- LCD & Dot Matrix Display
-:- Important Short Questions and Answers:Storage and Display Devices

## TRANSDUCERS AND DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS

-:- Transducers
-:- Classification of Electrical Transducers
-:- Advantages and Disadvantages of Electrical Transducers
-:- Characteristics of Transducer
-:- Transducer Selection Factors
-:- Resistance Transducers
-:- Resistance Thermometers: Construction, Advantages, Limitations
-:- Thermistors: Construction, Advantages, Limitations
-:- Capacitive Transducers and its Application
-:- Inductive Transducers
-:- Digital Transducers
-:- Piezoelectric Transducers
-:- Hall-effect transducers
-:- Data Acquisition Systems and its Elements
-:- Advantages, Disadvantages and Applications of Data Acquisition Systems
-:- Analogue-To-Digital Converters
-:- Digital-To-Analogue (D/A) Conversion
-:- Smart Sensors
-:- Optical Transducer
-:- Important Short Questions and Answers: Transducers