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Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology -

Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology

The Human Organism


-:- Anatomy
-:- Physiology
-:- Structural and Functional Organization of the Human Body
-:- Characteristics of Life
-:- Microbesin Your Body
-:- Homeostasis
-:- Terminology and the Body Plan

The chemical basis of life


-:- Basic Chemistry
-:- Chemical reactions - Human Organism
-:- Acids and Bases
-:- Inorganic Molecules
-:- Organic Molecules

Cell Structures and their Functions


-:- Cell Structure
-:- Function of the cell
-:- Structure of the Cell membrane
-:- Movement through the cell membrane
-:- Organelles - Cell Structures and their Functions
-:- Whole cell activity
-:- Cellular aspects of aging

Tissues


-:- Tissues and Histology
-:- Epithelial Tissue
-:- Functions of Epithelia
-:- Classification of Epithelia
-:- Connective tissue
-:- Functions of Connective Tissue
-:- Muscle tissue
-:- Nervous tissue
-:- Tissue membranes
-:- Tissue damage and inflammation
-:- Tissue repair
-:- Effects of aging on tissues

Integumentary System


-:- Functions of the Integumentary System
-:- Skin
-:- Subcutaneous Tissue
-:- Accessory skin structures
-:- Physiology of the integumentary system
-:- Integumentary system as a diagnostic Aid
-:- Burns: Classify burns on the basis of the amount of skin damage produced
-:- Skin Cancer
-:- Effects of Aging on the Integumentary System

Skeletal System Bones and Joints


-:- Functions of the Skeletal System
-:- Extracellular Matrix
-:- General Features of Bone
-:- Bone and calcium homeostasis
-:- General Considerations of Bone Anatomy
-:- Axial Skeleton
-:- Appendicular Skeleton
-:- Joints
-:- Effects of Aging on the Skeletal System and Joints

Muscular System


-:- Functions of the Muscular System
-:- Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle
-:- Skeletal Muscle Structure
-:- Excitability of Muscle Fibers
-:- Nerve Supply and Muscle fiber Stimulation
-:- Muscle Contraction
-:- Energy Requirements for Muscle Contraction
-:- Fatigue
-:- Effect of Fiber Type on Activity Level
-:- Smooth Muscle and Cardiac Muscle
-:- General Principles - Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
-:- Nomenclature - Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
-:- Muscles of the head and Neck
-:- Trunk Muscles
-:- Upper limb Muscles
-:- Lower Limb Muscles
-:- Effects of Aging on Skeletal Muscle

Nervous System


-:- Functions of the Nervous System
-:- Divisions of the Nervous System
-:- Cells of the Nervous System
-:- Electrical Signals and Neural Pathways
-:- Resting Membrane Potential - Electrical Signals and Neural Pathways
-:- Action Potentials - Electrical Signals and Neural Pathways
-:- The Synapse - Electrical Signals and Neural Pathways
-:- Reflexes - Electrical Signals and Neural Pathways
-:- Neuronal Pathways - Electrical Signals and Neural Pathways
-:- Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems
-:- Spinal Cord and Spinal Cord Reflexes
-:- Spinal Nerves
-:- Brain Anatomy
-:- Sensory Functions
-:- Motor Functions: Motor Areas Of The Cerebral Cortex, Descending tracts, Cerebellum
-:- Communication Between the right and Left hemispheres - Brain Functions
-:- Speech - Brain Functions
-:- Brain waves and Consciousness - Brain Functions
-:- Memory - Brain Functions
-:- Limbic system and emotions - Brain Functions
-:- Meninges - Nervous System
-:- Ventricles - Nervous System
-:- Cerebrospinal fluid - Nervous System
-:- Cranial Nerves
-:- Autonomic Nervous System
-:- Enteric Nervous System
-:- Effects of Aging on the Nervous System

Senses


-:- Sensation
-:- Sensory Receptors
-:- General Senses
-:- Special Senses
-:- Olfaction
-:- Taste
-:- Vision
-:- Accessory Structures of the Eye
-:- Anatomy of the Eye
-:- Functions of the Eye
-:- Neuronal Pathways for Vision
-:- Hearing and Balance
-:- Anatomy and function of the Ear
-:- Hearing - Ear
-:- Neuronal Pathways for Hearing
-:- Balance - Ear
-:- Neuronal Pathways for Balance - Ear
-:- Effects of Aging on the Senses

Endocrine System


-:- Principles of Chemical Communication
-:- Functions of the Endocrine System
-:- Characteristics of the Endocrine System
-:- Chemical Nature of Hormones
-:- Control of Hormone Secretion
-:- Hormone Receptors and Mechanisms of Action
-:- Pituitary and hypothalamus - Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones
-:- Thyroid Gland - Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones
-:- Parathyroid Glands - Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones
-:- Adrenal Glands - Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones
-:- Pancreas, Insulin, and Diabetes - Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones
-:- Testes and Ovaries - Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones
-:- Thymus and Pineal Gland - Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones
-:- Other Hormones
-:- Effects of Aging on the Endocrine System

Blood


-:- Functions of Blood
-:- Composition of Blood
-:- Plasma
-:- Formed Elements - Blood
-:- Preventing Blood Loss
-:- Blood Grouping
-:- ABO Blood Group
-:- Rh Blood Group
-:- Diagnostic Blood Tests

Heart


-:- Functions of the Heart
-:- Size, Form, and Location of the Heart
-:- Anatomy of the Heart
-:- Heart valves
-:- Route of Blood Flow Through the Heart
-:- Blood Supply to the Heart
-:- Histology of the Heart
-:- Electrical Activity of the Heart
-:- Cardiac Cycle
-:- Heart Sounds
-:- Regulation of Heart Function
-:- Effects of Aging on the Heart

Blood Vessels and Circulation


-:- Functions of the Circulatory System
-:- General Features of Blood Vessel Structure
-:- Blood Vessels of the Pulmonary Circulation
-:- Blood Vessels of the Systemic Circulation: Arteries
-:- Blood Vessels of the Systemic Circulation: Veins
-:- Physiology of Circulation
-:- Control of Blood Flow in Tissues
-:- Regulation of Arterial Pressure
-:- Effects of Aging on the Blood Vessels

Lymphatic System and Immunity


-:- Functions of the Lymphatic System
-:- Anatomy of the Lymphatic System
-:- Immunity
-:- Innate Immunity
-:- Adaptive Immunity
-:- Origin and Development of Lymphocytes
-:- Activation and Multiplication of Lymphocytes
-:- Antibody-mediated immunity
-:- Cell-Mediated Immunity
-:- Acquired Immunity
-:- Overview of Immune Interactions
-:- Immunotherapy
-:- Effects of Aging on the Lymphatic System and Immunity

Respiratory System


-:- Functions of the Respiratory System
-:- Anatomy of the Respiratory System
-:- Nose - Anatomy of the Respiratory System
-:- Pharynx - Anatomy of the Respiratory System
-:- Larynx - Anatomy of the Respiratory System
-:- Trachea - Anatomy of the Respiratory System
-:- Bronchi - Anatomy of the Respiratory System
-:- Lungs - Anatomy of the Respiratory System
-:- Pleural Cavities - Anatomy of the Respiratory System
-:- Lymphatic Supply - Anatomy of the Respiratory System
-:- Ventilation and Respiratory Volumes
-:- Changing thoracic Volume
-:- Lung Recoil
-:- Changing Alveolar Volume
-:- Respiratory Volumes and Capacities
-:- Gas Exchange - Respiratory System
-:- Gas Transport in the Blood
-:- Rhythmic Breathing
-:- Generation of Rhythmic Breathing
-:- Nervous and Chemical Control of Breathing
-:- Effect of Exercise on Breathing
-:- Respiratory Adaptations to Exercise
-:- Effects of Aging on the Respiratory System

Digestive System


-:- Functions of the Digestive System
-:- Anatomy and Histology of the Digestive System
-:- Anatomy of Oral Cavity, Pharynx, and Esophagus
-:- Anatomy of the oral Cavity
-:- Saliva
-:- Swallowing - Digestive System
-:- Stomach
-:- Anatomy of the Stomach
-:- Secretions of the Stomach
-:- Regulation of Stomach Secretions
-:- Movement in the Stomach
-:- Anatomy of the Small intestine
-:- Secretions of the Small intestine
-:- Movement and Absorption in the Small Intestine
-:- Anatomy of the liver
-:- Functions of the Liver
-:- Anatomy and Functions of the Pancreas
-:- Anatomy of the large intestine
-:- Functions of the Large Intestine
-:- Digestion, Absorption, and Transport in Digestive System
-:- Effects of Aging on the Digestive System

Nutrition Metabolism and body Temperature Regulation


-:- Nutrition and Nutrients
-:- Kilocalories
-:- Carbohydrates - Human Nutrition
-:- Lipids - Human Nutrition
-:- Proteins - Human Nutrition
-:- Vitamins - Human Nutrition
-:- Minerals - Human Nutrition
-:- Daily Values - Human Nutrition
-:- Metabolism
-:- Regulation of Metabolism
-:- Carbohydrate Metabolism
-:- Lipid Metabolism
-:- Protein Metabolism
-:- Metabolic States
-:- Metabolic Rate
-:- Body Temperature Regulation

Urinary System and Fluid Balance


-:- Functions of the Urinary System
-:- Anatomy of the Kidneys
-:- Urine Production
-:- Filtration - Urine Production
-:- Regulation of Filtration - Urine Production
-:- Tubular Reabsorption - Urine Production
-:- Tubular Secretion - Urine Production
-:- Regulation of Urine Concentration and Volume
-:- Urine Movement
-:- Body Fluid Compartments
-:- Regulation of Extracellular Fluid Composition
-:- Regulation of Acid-Base Balance in Human Body

Reproductive System


-:- Functions of the Reproductive System
-:- Formation of Gametes
-:- Male Reproductive System
-:- Physiology of Male Reproduction
-:- Regulation of Reproductive Hormone Secretion
-:- Puberty In Males
-:- Effects of Testosterone
-:- Male Sexual Behavior and The Male Sex Act
-:- Infertility in Males
-:- Female Reproductive System
-:- Ovaries - Female Reproductive System
-:- Oogenesis and Fertilization - Female Reproductive System
-:- Uterine tubes - Female Reproductive System
-:- Uterus - Female Reproductive System
-:- Vagina - Female Reproductive System
-:- Mammary Glands and Anatomy of the Breast - Female Reproductive System
-:- Physiology of Female Reproduction
-:- Puberty in Females
-:- Menstrual Cycle
-:- Female sexual Behavior and the Female sex act
-:- Effects of Aging on the Reproductive System

Development Heredity and aging


-:- Prenatal Development
-:- Formation of the Germ - Prenatal Development
-:- Neural tube and neural Crest Formation - Prenatal Development
-:- Formation of the General Body structure - Prenatal Development
-:- Development of the Organ Systems - Prenatal Development
-:- Growth of the Fetus - Prenatal Development
-:- Parturition
-:- The Newborn
-:- Lactation
-:- First Year Following Birth
-:- Life Stages
-:- Genetics
-:- Genes
-:- Genetic Disorders and Counseling
Mahendra Varman Mahendra Varman Mahendra Varman Mahendra Varman Mahendra Varman

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