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12th Standard Higher secondary Second Year

Botany -

Botany

TAXONOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS


-:- TAXONOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS : Types of classification
-:- Biosystematics nomenclature
-:- Binomial nomenclature
-:- Herbaria and uses, Importance of Herbaria
-:- Bentham and Hooker's classification of plants : Dicotyledonae, Gymnospermae and Monocotyledonae
-:- Merits and Demerits of Bentham and Hooker's classification of plants
-:- DICOT FAMILIES : MALVACEAE - the cotton family
-:- Botanical description of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
-:- FABACEAE - the bean family
-:- Botanical description and Economical of Clitoria ternatea
-:- RUBIACEAE - the coffee family
-:- Botanical description and Economic Importance of Ixora coccinea
-:- ASTERACEAE - the sunflower family
-:- Botanical description and Economic importance of Tridax procumbens
-:- SOLANACEAE - the potato family
-:- Botanical description and Economic importance of Datura metal
-:- EUPHORBIACEAE - the castor family
-:- Botanical description and Economic importance of Ricinus communis
-:- MUSACEAE - the banana family Systematic position
-:- Botanical description and Economical importance of Musa paradisiaca
-:- ARECACEAE - the palm family
-:- Botanical description and Economic importance of Cocos nucifera

PLANT ANATOMY


-:- Classification and Characteristics of meristematic cells
-:- Classification of permanent tissue : Simple and Complex tissue
-:- Permanent Simple tissue Types : parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma
-:- Permanent Complex tissue and Types : Xylem, Phloem
-:- Phloem : Sieve elements, Companion cells, Phloem parenchyma, Phloem fibres
-:- Epidermal tissue system and its functions
-:- Vascular tissue system
-:- Ground or fundamental tissue system
-:- Primary structure of monocotyledonous root - Maize root
-:- Primary structure of dicotyledonous root - Bean root
-:- Primary structure of monocot stem - Maize stem
-:- Primary structure of dicotyledonous stem - Sunflower stem
-:- Anatomy of a dicot leaf - Sunflower leaf
-:- Anatomy of a monocot leaf - Grass leaf
-:- Secondary growth in dicot stem

CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS


-:- Structure of chromosome
-:- Types of chromosomes
-:- Special types of chromosomes
-:- Gene and genome
-:- Linkage and crossing over
-:- Significance of crossing over and Uses of gene mapping
-:- Recombination of chromosome
-:- Gene mutation : Significance, Classification, Mutagenic agents
-:- Numerical and Structural chromosomal aberrations
-:- Numerical and Structural chromosomal aberrations
-:- Hereditary role of DNA - Bacterial transformation
-:- Structure of DNA
-:- Function and Replication of DNA
-:- Structure of RNA and its types
-:- Characteristics of genetic code and Central dogma of molecular biology

BIOTECHNOLOGY


-:- Recombinant DNA technology
-:- Gene transfer in plants
-:- How DNA is cut?
-:- Transgenic plants : foreign gene, Transgenic (modified) plants
-:- Practical application of genetic transformation
-:- Use of genetically engineered bacterial strain
-:- Concept of Plant tissue culture
-:- Applications of plant tissue culture
-:- Basic techniques of plant tissue culture
-:- Protoplast fusion : Isolation of protoplast - Mechanical and Enzymatic method
-:- Single cell protein (SCP)

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY


-:- Enzymes : Classification, Properties of Enzymes
-:- Theories explaining the mechanism of enzyme action
-:- Significance of photosynthesis
-:- Site of photosynthesis
-:- Photochemical and biosynthetic phases, Mechanism of photosynthesis
-:- EXPERIMENTS ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS : 1.Ganong's light screen 2.Test tube and funnel experiment
-:- Plant Mode of nutrition
-:- Chemosynthesis - Chemosynthetic autotrophs and heterotrophs
-:- Plant Respiration and structure of ATP
-:- Plant Respiration : Glycolysis
-:- Plant Respiration : Krebs cycle and Significance of Krebs cycle
-:- Plant Respiration : Electron transport chain
-:- Plant Respiration : Pentose phosphate pathway
-:- Kuhne's fermentation tube experiment
-:- Plant growth and Measurement of plant growth
-:- auxins and Physiological effects of auxin
-:- Gibberellins and Physiological effects of gibberellin
-:- Physiological effects of cytokinin, ethylene, abscisic acid
-:- Photoperiodism and vernalization

BIOLOGY IN HUMAN WELFARE


-:- BIOLOGY IN HUMAN WELFARE : Food production
-:- Plant breeding : Aims, Major Aspects of plant breeding
-:- Plant Breeding : Selection
-:- Plant Breeding : Hybridization, Mutation breeding
-:- Plant breeding : Genetic engineering
-:- Role of biofertilizers and Benefits from biofertilizers
-:- Plant Disease in Rice - Oryza sativa
-:- Plant Tikka disease in Groundnut or peanut - Arachis hypogea
-:- Citrus canker and Tungro disease of rice
-:- Biopesticides and Biocontrol of insect pests
-:- Genetically modified food : Edible, Edible, Edible antibodies
-:- Bio-war
-:- Bio-piracy
-:- Bio-patent
-:- Sustained agriculture
-:- Medicinal plants including microbes
-:- Commonly available medicinal plants and microbes
-:- Economic importance Plants : Food, Rice, Oil, Fibre, Timber yielding plant
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