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Biology of Disease -

Biology of Disease

The Nature and Investigation of Diseases


-:- Nature and Investigation of Diseases
-:- Characteristic Features of Diseases
-:- Classification of Diseases
-:- Epidemiology of Disease
-:- Investigating Diseases
-:- Types of Pathology Laboratories
-:- Role of Hospital Laboratory Tests
-:- Hospital Laboratory Tests
-:- Evaluation of Laboratory Tests
-:- Reference Ranges of Diseases
-:- Quality of Test Results and Clinical Auditing

Pathogens and Virulence


-:- Pathogens and Virulence: Introduction
-:- Types of Pathogens
-:- Virulence Factors: Defensive, Offensive
-:- Course of Infection

Infectious Diseases and Treatments


-:- Infectious Diseases and Treatments: Introduction
-:- Infections of the Skin
-:- Infections of the Eyes, Ears and Central Nervous System
-:- Infections of the Respiratory System
-:- Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
-:- Infections of the Urogenital System
-:- Sepsis and Systemic Infections
-:- Investigating Infectious Diseases
-:- Preventing Infectious Diseases
-:- Controlling the Spread of Pathogens
-:- Treatment of Infectious Diseases
-:- Antiviral Drugs - Treatment of Infectious Diseases
-:- Antibacterial Drugs - Treatment of Infectious Diseases
-:- Antifungal, Antiprotozoal and Antihelminthic Drugs - Treatment of Infectious Diseases
-:- Combination Therapy - Treatment of Infectious Diseases
-:- Surgery - Treatment of Infectious Diseases

The Immune System


-:- Types of Immune Defense
-:- Nonspecific Defenses
-:- Specific Immune Responses
-:- Small Lymphocytes
-:- Production of a Specific Immune Response

Disorders of the Immune System


-:- Disorders of the Immune System: Introduction
-:- Immunodeficiency Diseases
-:- Primary Immunodeficiency Disease
-:- Combined T and B deficiencies - Primary Immunodeficiency Disease
-:- Antibody deficiencies - Primary Immunodeficiency Disease
-:- The DiGeorge anomaly and the Wiskott Aldridge syndrome - Primary Immunodeficiency Disease
-:- The Chediak Higashi syndrome - Primary Immunodeficiency Disease
-:- Phagocytic defects - Primary Immunodeficiency Disease
-:- Complement deficiencies - Primary Immunodeficiency Disease
-:- Autoimmune Disorders
-:- Classification of Autoimmune Disorders
-:- Autoimmune Disorders Affecting Endocrine Glands
-:- Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Disease
-:- Myasthenia Gravis - Autoimmune Disorders
-:- Rheumatoid Arthritis - Autoimmune Disorders
-:- Systemic Lupus Erythematosus - Autoimmune Disorders
-:- Immunological Hypersensitivity
-:- Type I Immunological Hypersensitivity
-:- Type II Immunological Hypersensitivity
-:- Type III Immunological Hypersensitivity
-:- Type IV Delayed Type Immunological Hypersensitivity

Transfusion and Transplantation


-:- Transfusion and Transplantation: Introduction
-:- Blood and Blood Products for Transfusion
-:- The Discovery of the Blood Group Systems
-:- The ABO Blood Group System (ISBT 001)
-:- The Rh Blood Group System (ISBT 004)
-:- Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn
-:- Other Blood Group Systems
-:- Laboratory Determination of Blood Groups
-:- Role of Complement in Transfusion Reactions
-:- Hazards of Transfusion
-:- Screening of Blood Donors
-:- Transplantation of Solid Tissues and Organs
-:- HLA System and Typing
-:- Immunosuppression
-:- Hemopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Disorders of the Endocrine System


-:- Disorders of the Endocrine System
-:- Hormone Production
-:- Mechanisms of Hormonal Action
-:- Causes of Endocrine Disorders
-:- Pituitary Gland
-:- Disorders of Pituitary Function
-:- Growth Hormone Disorders
-:- Diagnosis and Treatment of Growth Hormone Disorders
-:- Thyroid Hormone Disorders
-:- Diagnosis and Treatment of Thyroid Disorders
-:- Regulation of Blood Glucose
-:- Diabetes Mellitus
-:- Diagnosis and treatment of diabetes mellitus
-:- Hypoglycemia - Regulation of Blood Glucose
-:- Diagnosis and treatment of hypoglycemia
-:- Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex
-:- Addison’s Disease - Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex
-:- Diagnosis and treatment of Addison’s disease
-:- Cushing’s Syndrome - Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex
-:- Diagnosis and treatment of Cushing’s syndrome
-:- Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Diagnosis and treatment - Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex
-:- Conn’s Syndrome: Diagnosis and treatment
-:- Reproductive Hormones
-:- Disorders of Sex Hormones

Disorders of Water Electrolytes and Urate Balances


-:- Disorders of Water, Electrolytes and Urate Balances
-:- Kidneys
-:- Renal Function Tests
-:- Renal Failure: Acute and Chronic renal failure
-:- Disorders of Water Homeostasis
-:- Disorders of Na+ Homeostasis
-:- Disorders of K+ Homeostasis
-:- Disorders of Ca2+ Homeostasis
-:- Disorders of Phosphate Homeostasis
-:- Disorders of Mg2+ Homeostasis
-:- Disorders of Urate Metabolism

Disorders of Acid Base Balance


-:- Disorders of Acid Base Balance
-:- The Production and Transport of Carbon Dioxide
-:- Buffering and the Excretion of H+
-:- Types of Acid–Base Disorders
-:- Metabolic Acid Base Disorders
-:- Respiratory Acid Base Disorders
-:- Mixed Acid Base Disorders
-:- Investigating Acid Base Disorders

Diet and Disease


-:- Diet and Disease: Introduction
-:- Diet and Nutrition
-:- Nutrients and Energy - Diet and Nutrition
-:- Carbohydrates - Diet and Nutrition
-:- Lipids and fatty acids - Diet and Nutrition
-:- Proteins - Diet and Nutrition
-:- Water - Diet and Nutrition
-:- Vitamins - Diet and Nutrition
-:- Minerals and Trace Elements - Diet and Nutrition
-:- Protein Energy Malnutrition - Nutritional Disorders
-:- Obesity - Nutritional Disorders
-:- Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa - Nutritional Disorders
-:- Hypovitaminoses and Hypervitaminoses - Disorders of Vitamin Nutrition
-:- Nutritional Disorders of Minerals and Trace Elements
-:- Investigating Nutritional Disorders
-:- Protein-Energy Malnutrition - Investigating Nutritional Disorders
-:- Obesity, Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa - Investigating Nutritional Disorders
-:- Vitamins - Investigating Nutritional Disorders
-:- Minerals and Trace Elements - Investigating Nutritional Disorders
-:- General Management of Nutritional Disorders

Disorders of the Gastrointestinal Tract Pancreas Liver and Gall Bladder


-:- Gastrointestinal Tract and its Accessory Organs
-:- Digestion: Mouth, Stomach, Small Intestine
-:- Absorption of the Products of Digestion
-:- Activities of the Large Intestine
-:- Small Intestine and Homeostasis
-:- Hormonal Control of GIT Secretions
-:- Disorders of the Exocrine Pancreas
-:- Disorders of the Liver, Gall Bladder and Bile Duct
-:- Disorders of the Stomach
-:- Disorders of the Small Intestine
-:- Disorders of the Large Intestine

Toxicology


-:- Toxicology
-:- Drug Action, Metabolism, Distribution and Excretion
-:- Physiological Detoxification Mechanisms
-:- Symptomatic Poisoning
-:- Paracetamol - Toxicology Poisons
-:- Aspirin - Toxicology Poisons
-:- Ethanol - Toxicology Poisons
-:- Methanol - Toxicology Poisons
-:- Ethylene Glycol - Toxicology Poisons
-:- Barbiturates - Toxicology Poisons
-:- Carbon Monoxide - Toxicology Poisons
-:- Paraquat - Toxicology Poisons
-:- Metals - Toxicology Poisons

Disorders of the Blood


-:- Disorders of the Blood
-:- Blood Cells and Platelets
-:- Hemoglobins
-:- Hemostasis and Blood Clotting
-:- Anemias: Microcytic and Macrocytic Anemia
-:- Microcytic Anemias
-:- Macrocytic Anemia
-:- Hemoglobinopathies
-:- Sickle Cell Anemia - Hemoglobinopathies
-:- Thalassemias - Hemoglobinopathies
-:- Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency (G6PD) Favism
-:- Clinical Aspects of Clotting
-:- Thrombocytopenia and Thrombocytosis

Disorders of the Cardiovascular System


-:- Disorders of the Cardiovascular System: Introduction
-:- Heart and Circulatory Systems
-:- Blood Vessels
-:- Blood Pressure
-:- Investigating Cardiac Function in Health and Disease
-:- Electrocardiogram (ECG) - Investigating Cardiac Function in Health and Disease
-:- Endocarditis
-:- Abnormal Heart Rhythms
-:- Cardic Failure: Investigation, Treatment, Chronic and Acute Heart Failure
-:- Ischemic Heart Disease
-:- Cardiomyopathies
-:- Heart Valve Disorders
-:- Heart Tumors
-:- Atherosclerosis or Arteriosclerosis
-:- Angina - Atherosclerosis or Arteriosclerosis
-:- Cholesterol and Lipoproteins
-:- Myocardial Infarction
-:- Pericardial Diseases
-:- Disorders of Arteries and Veins
-:- Clinical Problems Associated with Blood Pressure

Genetic Diseases


-:- Genetic Diseases
-:- Genetics and DNA
-:- DNA Replication and the Cell Cycle
-:- Genotype and Phenotype
-:- Inheritance and Mutations
-:- Sex linked Genetic Diseases
-:- Inherited Gene Disorders
-:- Consequences of an Enzyme Deficiency
-:- National Screening Programs for Inherited Diseases
-:- Chromosomes and the Human Karyotype
-:- Fragile Sites - Chromosomes and the Human Karyotype
-:- Chromosomal Mutations or Aberrations
-:- Aneuploidy - Variations in Chromosome Numbers
-:- Euploidy - Variations in Chromosome Numbers
-:- Detecting, Diagnosing and Screening Human Genetics Diseases

Membrane Organelle and Cytoskeletal Disorders


-:- Nucleus and Nucleocytoplasmic Transport
-:- Plasma Membrane Disorders
-:- Cystic Fibrosis: Diagnosis and treatment - Plasma Membrane Disorders
-:- Mitochondrial Disorders: Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment
-:- Causes of Mitochondrial Disorders
-:- Diagnosis and Treatment of Mitochondrial Disorders
-:- Peroxisomal Disorders
-:- Diagnosis and Treatment of Peroxisomal Disorders
-:- Lysosomal Disorders
-:- Diagnosis and Treatment of Lysosomal Storage Disorders
-:- Cytoskeletal Disorders
-:- Muscular Dystrophies: Diagnosis and treatment
-:- Hereditary Elliptocytosis and Spherocytosis: Diagnosis and treatment

Cancer


-:- Cancer
-:- Classification of Cancer Types
-:- Epidemiology of Cancer
-:- Molecular Biology of Cancer
-:- Causes of Cancer
-:- Clinical Tests for Cancer - General Diagnosis of Cancer
-:- General Treatment of Cancer
-:- Chemotherapy - General Treatment of Cancer
-:- Radiation Therapy - General Treatment of Cancer
-:- Immunotherapy - General Treatment of Cancer
-:- Lung Cancer: Classification, Treatment, Signs, symptoms, diagnosis and staging
-:- Breast Cancer: Treatment, Signs, symptoms, diagnosis and staging
-:- Prostate Cancer: Treatment, Signs, symptoms and staging
-:- Colorectal Cancer: Treatment, Signs, symptoms, diagnosis and staging
-:- Leukemias: Chronic myelogenous, Acute myeloid, Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Aging and Disease


-:- Aging and Disease
-:- Aging of Cells, Tissues, Organs and Systems
-:- Causes of Aging: Wear and Tear, Genome Based Theories
-:- Age Related Diseases
-:- Calorie Restriction and Aging
-:- Investigations and Management of the Elderly
Mahendra Varman Mahendra Varman Mahendra Varman Mahendra Varman Mahendra Varman

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