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Chapter: Modern Pharmacology with Clinical Applications: Androgens, Antiandrogens, and Anabolic Steroids

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Sex Hormone–Binding Proteins

Circulating testosterone is reversibly bound to two major plasma proteins, albumin and gamma globulin.

SEX HORMONE–BINDING PROTEINS

 

Circulating testosterone is reversibly bound to two major plasma proteins, albumin and gamma globulin. Binding to albumin is a relatively nonspecific low-affinity and high-capacity association. In contrast, binding to the specific γ-globulin fraction, called sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG), is a high-affinity steroid-specific in-teraction. Under physiological conditions, 98% of testosterone is protein bound, 40% to albumin and 58% to SHBG. Thus, 2% or less of circulating testosterone is unbound or free. Free testosterone reflects the amount that is biologically active and available for interaction with peripheral target cells.

 

SHBG levels are known to be influenced by a variety of clinical conditions. In females, the high estrogen levels of pregnancy or the use of oral contraceptives result in in-creased SHBG concentrations. In males, elevated levels of SHBG are seen most commonly in individuals with liver cirrhosis or during normal aging. Elevated SHBG levels are also seen in hyperthyroidism and hypogonadism. All of these conditions are associated with elevated estrogen levels, which result in increased hepatic SHBG synthesis. SHBG levels are suppressed by androgen replacement or chronic glucocorticoid therapy. Elevations of SHBG do not necessarily result in a fall in free testosterone levels. When assessing the androgenic status of an individual, whether male or female, it is necessary to measure both to-tal and free testosterone plasma levels.

 

Plasma testosterone levels also exhibit age-associated changes. The levels of the hormone are very low through-out childhood and until early adolescence, when in-creasing testicular steroidogenesis precedes the onset of puberty in boys. Levels peak in the early 20s, and begin-ning at about age 30, testicular production of testos-terone begins to decline. Urinary 17-ketosteroid excre-tion declines slowly as a result of a concomitant decrease in the metabolic clearance rate of testos-terone. Therefore, there is a relatively constant serum testosterone concentration that often does not decline significantly until after age 70. After the fifth decade, free testosterone levels do decrease as a result of in-creased SHBG levels. In females, testosterone levels also decline with age; however, at menopause the de-cline in female hormones is so much greater that many postmenopausal women have higher androgen to estro-gen ratios, resulting frequently in significant hirsutism.

 

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