Chapter: Modern Pharmacology with Clinical Applications: Sedative-hypnotic and Anxiolytic Drugs

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Nonprescription Drugs

A wide variety of sedative–hypnotic products that do not require a prescription are available.

NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS

A wide variety of sedative–hypnotic products that do not require a prescription are available. Most of these over-the-counter products have antihistamines, such as pyrilamine, diphenhydramine, or promethazine, as the active ingredient. In most cases, the dose of the active ingredient is low and the preparations are safe.

Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) has central nervous system depressant properties and is widely used to relieve anx-iety and produce sedation. Although some medical practitioners occasionally prescribe an alcoholic bever-age for relieving minor anxiety and inducing sleep, indi-viduals frequently self-medicate with ethanol. Many in-dividuals who abuse alcohol may have started using it to relieve symptoms of central nervous system disorders, such as anxiety and depression.

Ethanol produces central nervous system depression over a wide range of doses. Its effects are additive or sometimes more than additive with other central ner-vous system depressants. Symptoms often associated with acute alcohol intoxication include increase in self-confidence, loss of inhibitions, euphoria, and loss of judg-ment. With increasing doses motor and intellectual im-pairment become prominent. Chronic abuse of ethanol leads to severe liver impairment .

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