Mechanical - Metrology and Measurements - Laser Metrology

Laser Interferometer

   Posted On :  23.09.2016 08:12 pm

It is possible to maintain the quality of interference fringes over longer distance when lamp is replaced by a laser source.



It is possible to maintain the quality of interference fringes over longer distance when lamp is replaced by a laser source. Laser interferometer uses AC laser as the light source and the measurements to be made over longer distance. Laser is a monochromatic optical energy, which can be collimated into a directional beam AC. Laser interferometer (ACLI) has the following advantages.


·        High repeatability


·        High accuracy


·        Long range optical path


·        Easy installations


·        Wear and tear


Schematic arrangement of laser interferometer is shown in fig. Two-frequency zeeman laser generates light of two slightly different frequencies with opposite circular polarisation. These beams get split up by beam splitter B One part travels towards B and from there to external cube corner here the displacement is to the measured.

Fig 4.8 Laser Interferometer


This interferometer uses cube corner reflectors which reflect light parallel to its angle of incidence. Beam splitter B2 optically separates the frequency J which alone is sent to the movable cube corner reflector. The second frequency from B2 is sent to a fixed reflector which then rejoins f1 at the beam splitter B2 to produce alternate light and dark interference flicker at about 2 Mega cycles per second. Now if the movable reflector moves, then the returning beam frequency Doppler-shifted   slightly   up Thus the light beams moving towards photo detector P2 have frequencies f2 and (f1 ± Δf1) and P2 changes these frequencies int signal from beam splitter B2 and changes the reference beam frequencies f1 and f2 into electrical signal. An AC amplifier A separates frequency. Difference signal f2 –f1 and A2 separates frequency difference signal. The pulse converter extracts i. one cycle per half wavelength of motion. The up-down pulses are counted electronically and displayed in analog or digital form.


Michelson Interferometer


Michelson interferometer consists of a monochromatic light source a beam splitter and two mirrors. The schematic arrangement of Michelson interferometer is shown in fig. The monochromatic light falls on a beam splitter, which splits the light into two rays of equal intensity at right angles. One ray is transmitted to mirror M1 and other is reflected through beam splitter to mirror M2,. From both these mirrors, the rays are reflected back and these return at the semireflecting surface from where they are transmitted to the eye. Mirror M2 is fixed and mirror M1 is movable. If both the mirrors are at same distance from beam splitter, then light will arrive in phase and observer will see bright spot due to constructive interference. If movable mirror shifts by quarter wavelength, then beam will return to observer 1800 out of phase and darkness will be observed due to destructive interference


Each half-wave length of mirror travel produces a change in the measured optical path of one wavelength and the reflected beam from the moving mirror shifts through 360° phase change. When the reference beam reflected from the fixed mirror and the beam reflected from the moving mirror rejoin at the beam splitter, they alternately reinforce and cancel each other as the mirror moves. Each cycle of intensity at the eye represents l/2 of mirror travel. When white light source is used then a compensator plate is introduced in each of the path of mirror M1 So that exactly the same amount of glass is introduced in each of the path.





To improve the Michelson interferometer


(i)               Use of laser the measurements can be made over longer distances and highly accurate measurements when compared to other monochromatic sources.


(ii)             Mirrors are replaced by cube-corner reflector which reflects light parallel to its angle of incidence.


(iii)          Photocells are employed which convert light intensity variation in voltage pulses to give the amount and direction of position change.



Dual Frequency Laser Interferometer


This instrument is used to measure displacement, high-precision measurements of length, angle, speeds and refractive indices as well as derived static and dynamic quantities. This system can be used for both incremental displacement and angle measurements. Due to large counting range it is possible to attain a resolution of 2mm in 10m measuring range. Means are also provided to compensate for the influence of ambient temperature, material temperature, atmospheric pressure and humidity fluctuation


Twyman-Green Interferometer


The Twyman-Green interferometer is used as a polarizing interferometer with variable amplitude balancing between sample and reference waves. For an exact measurement of the test surface, the instrument error can be determined by an absolute measurement. This error is compensated by storing the same in microprocessor system and subtracting from the measurement of the test surface.



It has following advantages


·       It permits testing of surface with wide varying reflectivity.


·       It avoids undesirable feedback of light reflected of the tested surface and the instrument optics.


·       It enables utilization of the maximum available energy.


·       Polarization permits phase variation to be effected with the necessary precision.


Laser Viewers


The profile of complex components like turbine blades can be checked by the use of optical techniques. It is based on use of laser and CCTV. A section of the blade, around its edge is delineated by two flat beam of laser light. This part of the edge is viewed at a narrow angle by the TV camera or beam splitter



Fig 4.10 Laser Viewers


Both blade and graticule are displayed as magnified images on the monitor, the graticule position being adjustable so that its image can be superimposed on the profile image. The graticule is effectively viewed at the same angle as the blade. So, distortion due to viewing angle affects both blade and graticule. This means that the graticule images are direct 1:1.





With laser interferometer it is possible to measure length to accuracy of 1 part in 106 on a routine basis. With the help of two retro reflectors placed at a fixed distance and a length measuring laser interferometer the change in angle can be measured to an accuracy of 0.1 second. The device uses sine Principle. The line joining the poles the retro-reflectors makes the hypotenuse of the right triangle. The change in the path difference of the reflected beam represents the side of the triangle opposite to the angle being measured. Such laser interferometer can be used to measure an angle up to ± 10 degrees with a resolution of 0. 1 second. The principle of operation is shown in fig.



Fig 4.11 Interferometric Angle Measurement




Laser Equipment for Alignment Testing


This testing is particularly suitable in aircraft production, shipbuilding etc. Where a number of components, spaced long distance apart, have to be checked to a predetermine straight line. Other uses of laser equipment are testing of flatness of machined surfaces, checking square ness with the help of optical square etc. These consist of laser tube will produces a cylindrical beam of laser about 10mm diameter and an auto reflector with a high degree of accuracy. Laser tube consists of helium-neon plasma tube in a heat aluminum cylindrical housing. The laser beam comes out of the housing from its centre and parallel to t stability is the order of 0.2”detectorofhead arcand per read out unit. Number of photocell are arranged to compare laser beam in each half horizontally and vertically. This is housed on a shard which has two adjustments to  translate the detector in its two orthogonal measuring directions perpendicular to the laser beam. The devices detect the alignment of flat surfaces perpendicular to a reference line of sight.


Tags : Mechanical - Metrology and Measurements - Laser Metrology
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