In practice, direct manipulation of all screen objects and actions may not be feasible because of the following:
The operation may be difficult to conceptualize in the graphical system.
The graphics capability of the
system may be limited.
The amount of space available for placing
manipulation controls in the window border may be limited.
It may be difficult for people to learn and
remember all the necessary operations and actions.
When this occurs, indirect manipulation is provided. Indirect manipulation substitutes words and text, such as pull-down or pop-up menus, for symbols, and substitutes typing for pointing.
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