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Chapter: 11 th 12th std standard Bio Botany plant tree Biology Higher secondary school College Notes

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Conservation of Energy

The present critical energy position demands an organized effort at all levels from individual to international action. A considerable amount of energy can be saved by reducing wastage and using energy efficient devices. Following measures can help in this effort:

Conservation of Energy

 

The present critical energy position demands an organized effort at all levels from individual to international action. A considerable amount of energy can be saved by reducing wastage and using energy efficient devices. Following measures can help in this effort:

 

1.    Development of technology for the use of solar energy in appliances and transport vehicles

 

2.    Development of efficient and smokeless Chulhas or wood stoves

 

3.    Development of non-conventional energy sources and less dependence on fossil fuels.

 

4.    Planned programme for raising fuel wood, trees and shrubs under the control and maintenance of local communities especially in developing countries.

 

5.    Effective use of agricultural and animal wastes to obtain biogas and manure.

 

6.    Improvement of engine and pump designs to increase fuel efficiency.

 

7.    Development of effective techniques to trap wind and tidal energy.

 

Energy resources

 

Source: Ecologically man is only a part of energy flow in nature. Man requires energy for his daily needs. The major energy sources are fuel wood, fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. Apart from these, the other direct energy resources are sunlight, hydroelectric and wind power, tidal, geothermal and nuclear energy.

 

Energy Requirement: During early stages of human civilization, the daily per capita need for energy was just 2,000-4,000 kilo calories. During the agricultural stage, the muscular energy of domestic animals was used for work. The per capita energy consumption gradually increased. In nineteenth century, during the industrial stage of human civilization, the use of fossil fuel started and the per capita energy requirement increased to 70,000 kilo calories per day.

 

Today we need energy for agriculture, industry, transport, communication, comfort and defence. The per head energy consumption varies from country to country

Depletion of fossil fuels

 

Today the world's energy resources have reached critical stage. Most of the world's human population uses fossil fuels (coal, petroleum and natural gas). The fossil fuel resources are being rapidly depleted. As a result these resources may last only another few centuries. The dwindling stocks of fuels has led to the search of alternate sources of energy.


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