Achievements of the U N O
From the very beginning, the United Nations Organization had to deal with a large number of conflicts and problems in the international field. The Security Council of the U.N.O. made several efforts to solve those problems. But the efforts of the Security Council had been greatly hampered by the free use of the veto power. During the year 1946-47, Russia exercised the right of veto on twenty-two occasions. But in spite of this serious handicap U.N.O. has achieved success in solving many problems. some of them are as follows :
UNO assisted the colonized countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America to attain their independence from the colonial masters. This process is known as decolonization. After the establishment of UNO the process of decolonization was quickly achieved.
The main function of UNO had been the maintenance of peace in the world. UNO achieved peace in the following conflict situations.
On 1st January 1946, Iran presented a complaint against Russia before the U.N.O. The root cause of the conflict was stationing of Russian troops in Iran. U.N.O. took a very strong line as a consequence of this, the Russian troops were withdrawn from Iran, which had been stationed there for many years. This was the first and the most important achievement of the U.N.O.
Similar complaint was also made by Syria and Lebanon before the U.N.O. Both of them requested the U.N.O. that British and French troops should be immediately removed from their respective states. The Security Council, therefore, made its efforts and at last it succeeded in securing the withdrawal of British and French troops from those states.
After the end of the Second World War, the nationalists living in Indonesia established a republican government. But the Dutch living in the colonies of Java and Sumatra rose in rebellion against the nationalists. The Security Council issued a cease-fire order to both sides. The Dutch agreed to grant full independence to Indonesia.
After the end of the First World War, Palestine had been handed over to Great Britain under the mandate system. But the struggle arose between the Arabs and the Jews which created disturbance and tension in Palestine. After the Second World War U.N.O. appointed a special committee to study the problem of Palestine. The Committee recommended immediate partition of Palestine into three parts - an Arab State, a Jewish State and the City of Jerusalem which was to be governed by the Trusteeship Council of the U.N.O. Thus, an independent state of Israel was established for the Jews in 1948.
The Arabs bitterly opposed the plan of the partition of Palestine. They rose in revolt against the Jews. Consequently, a civil war broke out in Palestine between the Arab League and the newly established Israel. The UNO took effective steps to diffuse the tension in Palestine.
This problem arose between India and Pakistan. Both of them fell into a state of great rivalry on this issue. This problem was brought to the notice of the U.N.O. It made its best efforts to remove hostility and differences between them. As a result of its mediation, the war was stopped between India and Pakistan. But this problem could not be solved permanently. It still awaits a peaceful and permanent solution.
Before the beginning of the Second World War, the whole of Korea was under the control of Japan. After the Second World War, Russia and America decided to divide Korea on the 38th parallel line. On 24th June 1950 the army of the North Korea made a fierce attack over South Korea. The matter was again brought before the U.N.O. Hence, the Security Council decided to take some strong steps against North Korea. UNO sent its army under the command of an American, General Douglas MacArthur. A treaty was signed on July 27, 1953 by which the U.N.O. withdrew its military action.
Other Important Problems
UNO tried to bring peaceful conclusion of many other problems such as Suez Crisis , Cyprus issue , Congo problem , Gulf War .
Besides, UNO was concerned about arms control and disarmament, particularly the nuclear disarmament and control of nuclear weapons.
UNO has achieved considerable success in non-political matters. Such as ending racial discrimination [called Apartheid] in South Africa, protecting human rights and providing financial assistance to many developing countries from World Bank, IDA and IMF.
The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. UNO was successful in its main objectives, in spite of difficulties and set backs.
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